Telephone triage training, consulting and expertise -- trusted by medical professionals since 1985
tel. 415-453-8382


References: Evidence-Based Structure & Process in Telephone Triage


Design Process References

We have made every effort to create products and services that are evidence-based. References below form the foundation for the design (both system & process) for the Adult & Pediatric Telephone Triage Guidelines.

  • American College of Physicians (ACEP) & Emergency Nurses Association (ENA) joint position statement– Standardized ED Triage Scale and Acuity Categorization. July 2010.
  •  ACEP Policy Statement Providing Telephone Advice from the Emergency Department. February, 2013
  • Baumeister & Tierney (2011) Will Power
  • Donabedian (2003) An Introduction to Quality Assurance in Health Care
  • Donabedian A. Quality assurance. Structure, process and outcome. Nursing Standard (Royal College Of Nursing (Great Britain). 1992;7(11 Suppl ).
  • ENA Position Statement on Telephone Triage (2015)
  • Gawande (2009) The Checklist Manifesto
  • Institute of Medicine. To Err is Human: Building a Safer Health System. . In: Institute of Medicine Committee on the Quality of Health Care in America, editor. Washington DC: Institute of Medicine; 1999.
  • Kahneman (2011) Thinking Fast and Slow
  • Joint Commission. Sentinel Event Data: Root Causes by Event Type 2004-2Q 2012. In: Commission TJ, editor. Washington, DC: The Joint Commission, Office of Quality Monitoring; 2012.
  • Johns Hopkins Research, Study Suggests Medical Errors Now Third Leading Cause of Death in the U.S. (May, 2016) BMJ.
  • Lephrohon, J. & Patel, V. (1995). Decision Strategies In Emergency Telephone Triage. Medical Decision-Making. 15 (3): 240 -253.
  • Mahlmeister, L, & Van Mullen, C. (2000). The Process Of Triage In Perinatal Settings: Clinical And Legal Issues. J Perinatal Neonatal Nurse 2000 Mar; 13(4): 13-30
  • Perrin EC, Goodman HC. Telephone management of acute pediatric illnesses. The New England Journal of Medicine 1978;298(3):130-5 , Washington,
  • Wachter (2015) The Digital Doctor: Hope, Hype and Harm Medicine’s Computer Age
  • Wheeler, et al. (2015) Safety of Clinical & Non-Clinical Decision Makers in Telephone Triage. Journal of Telemedicine & Telecare, Sep;21(6):305-22.
  • Wheeler, S. Q. (2009). Telephone Triage Guidelines For Adult Populations with Women’s Health, TeleTriage Systems Publishers, San Anselmo, CA
  • Wheeler, S.Q.(2015) Telephone Triage: Essentials for Expert Practice. Workbook with Exercises (teletriage.com)

View additional research since 1993 by Sheila Quilter Wheeler: Google Scholar